Rodrigues-Cruces, Raul; Jessica Royer; Sara Lariviere; Dani S. Bassett; Lorenzo Caciaglo and Boris C. Bernhardt
Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological conditions, traditionally defined as a disorder of recurrent seizures. Cognitive and affective dysfunctions are increasingly recognized as core disease dimensions and can affect patient wellbeing, sometimes more than the seizures themselves. Connectome-based approaches hold immense promise for revealing mechanisms that contribute to dysfunction, and to identify biomarkers. Our review discusses emerging multimodal neuroimaging and connectomics studies that highlight network substrates of cognitive/affective dysfunction in the common epilepsies. We first overview work in drug-resistant epilepsy syndromes i.e., temporal lobe epilepsy related to mesiotemporal sclerosis (TLE) and extratemporal epilepsy (ETE) related to malformations of cortical development. While these are traditionally conceptualized as ‘focal’ epilepsies, many patients present with broad structural and functional anomalies. Moreover, the extent of distributed changes contributes to difficulties in multiple cognitive domains as well as affective-behavioral challenges. We will also review work in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), a class of generalized epilepsy syndromes that involve subcortico-cortical circuits. Overall, neuroimaging and network neuroscience studies point to both shared and syndrome specific connectome signatures of dysfunction across TLE, ETE, and IGE. Lastly, we point to current gaps in the literature and formulate recommendations for future research.