Zhang, Xiaolong; Urs Braun; Heike Tost and Danielle S. Bassett
Combining advanced neuroimaging with novel computational methods in network science and machine learning has led to increasingly meaningful descriptions of structure and function in both the normal and the abnormal brain, thereby contributing significantly to our understanding of psychiatric disorders as circuit dysfunctions. Despite its marked potential for psychiatric care, this approach has not yet extended beyond the research setting to any clinically useful applications. Here we review current developments in the study of neuroimaging data using network models and machine learning methods, with a focus on their promise in offering a framework for clinical translation. We discuss 3 potential contributions of these methods to psychiatric care: 1) a better understanding of psychopathology beyond current diagnostic boundaries; 2) individualized prediction of treatment response and prognosis; and 3) formal theories to guide the development of novel interventions. Finally, we highlight current obstacles and sketch a forward-looking perspective of how the application of machine learning and network modeling methods should proceed to accelerate their potential transformation of clinically useful tools.